Joseph Justiss commented on a previous post in which I discussed Chris Hays’s essay on identifying allusions within the Old Testament and recommended an article by Jeffery Leonard: Identifying Inner-Biblical Allusions: Psalm 78 as a Test Case. It’s quite an interesting and helpful study which he divides into two parts: evaluating evidence for textual links and determining direction of influence. Here are the points that he considers under the two parts.
Evaluating Evidence for Textual Links
- Shared language is the single most importantfactor in establishing a textual connection.
- Shared language is more important than nonshared language.
- Shared language that is rare or distinctive suggests a stronger connection than does language that is widely used.
- Shared phrases suggest a stronger connection than do individual shared terms.
- The accumulation of shared language suggests a stronger connection than does a single shared term or phrase.
- Shared language in similar contexts suggests a stronger connection than does shared language alone.
- Shared language need not be accompanied by shared ideology to establish a connection.
- Shared language need not be accompanied by shared form to establish a connection.
Determining Direction of Influence
- Does one text claim to draw upon another?
- Are there elements in the texts that help to fix their dates?
- Is one text capable of producing the other?
- Does one text assume the other?
- Does one text show a general pattern of dependence on other text?
- Are there rhetorical patterns in the texts that suggest that one text has used the other in an exegetically significant way?